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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud
FREUD
  • Sigmund Freud ( born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
  • Freud’s redefinition of sexuality to include its infantile forms led him to formulate the Oedipus complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytical theory.
  • His analysis of dreams as wish-fulfillments provided him with models for the clinical analysis of symptom formation and the underlying mech
 EARLY LIFE
  • Freud was born to Jewish parents in the Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian Empire (later Czech Republic), the first of eight children.
  • His father, Jakob Freud (1815–1896), a wool merchant, had two sons.He and Freud’s mother, Amalia Nathansohn, who was 20 years younger.
  • They were struggling financially and living in a rented room, in a locksmith’s house at Schlossergasse 117 when their son Sigmund was born.
EARLY LIFE
  • In 1865, the nine-year-old Freud entered the Leopoldstädter Kommunal-Realgymnasium, a prominent high school.
  • He proved to be an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in 1873 with honors. He loved literature and was proficient in German, French, Italian, Spanish, English, Hebrew, Latin and Greek.
  • Freud entered the University of Vienna at age 17. He had planned to study law, but joined the medical faculty at the university, where his studies included philosophy under Franz Brentano, physiology under Ernst Brücke, and zoology under Darwinist professor Carl Claus.
 MEDICAL FIELD PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • Freud began smoking tobacco at age 24; initially a cigarette smoker, he became a cigar smoker. He believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work and that he could exercise self-control in moderating it.
  • In October 1885, Freud went to Paris on a threemonth fellowship to study with Jean-Martin Charcot, a renowned neurologist who was conducting scientific research into hypnosis.
  • Once he had set up in private practice back in Vienna in 1886, Freud began using hypnosis in his clinical work. He adopted the approach of his friend and collaborator, Josef Breuer.
 PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • The treatment of one particular patient of Breuer’s proved to be transformative for Freud’s clinical practice. Described as Anna O., she was invited to talk about her symptoms while under hypnosis (she would coin the phrase “talking cure” for her treatment).
  • In the course of talking in this way, her symptoms became reduced in severity as she retrieved memories of traumatic incidents associated with their onset.
  • By 1896 he was using the term “psychoanalysis” to refer to his new clinical method and the theories on which it was based
 PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • On the basis of his early clinical work, Freud had postulated that unconscious memories of sexual molestation in early childhood were a necessary precondition for the psychoneuroses (hysteria and obsessional neurosis), a formulation now known as Freud’s seduction theory.
  • This transition from the theory of infantile sexual trauma as a general explanation of how all neuroses originate to one that presupposes an autonomous infantile sexuality provided the basis for Freud’s subsequent formulation of the theory of the Oedipus complex
PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • Freud described the evolution of his clinical method and set out his theory of the psychogenetic origins of hysteria, demonstrated in a number of case histories, in Studies on Hysteria published in 1895.
  • In 1899 he published The Interpretation of Dreams in which. He then sets out the theoretical model of mental structure (the unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious) on which this account is based.
  • An abridged version, On Dreams, was published in 1901. In works which would win him a more general readership, Freud applied his theories outside the clinical setting in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life.Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, published in 1905, Freud elaborates his theory of infantile sexuality.
 FOLLOWERS
  • From the autumn of 1902, a number of Viennese physicians who had expressed interest in Freud’s work were invited to meet at his apartment every Wednesday afternoon to discuss issues relating to psychology and neuropathology.
  • This group was called the Wednesday Psychological Society (Psychologische Mittwochs-Gesellschaft) and it marked the beginnings of the worldwide psychoanalytic movement.
  • By 1906, the group had grown to sixteen.Freud began a correspondence with Carl Gustav Jung who was by then already an academically acclaimed researcher and a lecturer at Zurich University
 REFUGEE
  • In February 1923, Freud detected a leukoplakia, a benign growth associated with heavy smoking, on his mouth. In January 1933, the Nazi Party took control of Germany, and Freud’s books were prominent among those they burned and destroyed.
  • This prospect and the shock of the arrest and interrogation of Anna Freud by the Gestapo finally convinced Freud it was time to leave Austria.
  • In the Freuds’ new home, 20 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead, North London, Freud’s Vienna consulting room was recreated in faithful detail. He continued to see patients there until the terminal stages of his illness
DEATH
  • By mid-September 1939, Freud’s cancer of the jaw was causing him increasingly severe pain and had been declared to be inoperable.
  • Anna Freud wanted to postpone her father’s death, but Schur convinced her it was pointless to keep him alive and on 21 and 22 Septembe
  • Three days after his death Freud’s body was cremated at the Golders Green Crematorium in North London, with Harrods acting as funeral directors, on the instructions of his son, Ernst.
Dr.SIGMUND FREUD
PART 2
SEDUCTION THEORY
  • According to Freud’s most of his patients in the mid1890s reported early childhood sexual abuse. Another version of events focuses on Freud’s proposing that unconscious memories of infantile sexual abuse were at the root of the psychoneuroses.
  • In the first half of 1896, Freud published three papers, which led to his seduction theory, stating that he had uncovered, in all of his current patients, deeply repressed memories of sexual abuse in early childhood
 THE UNCONSCIOUS
  • The concept of the unconscious was central to Freud’s account of the mind. Freud believed that while poets and thinkers had long known of the existence of the unconscious, he had ensured that it received scientific recognition in the field of psychology.
  • He postulated a cycle in which ideas are repressed, but remain in the mind, removed from consciousness yet operative, then reappear in consciousness under certain circumstances.
  • This fact, combined with the observation that such behavior could be artificially induced by hypnosis, in which ideas were inserted into people’s minds, suggested that ideas were operative in the original cases, even though their subjects knew nothing of them.
 PSYCHOSEXUAL
  • Freud’s theory of psychosexual development proposes that, following on from the initial polymorphous perversity of infantile sexuality, the sexual “drives” pass through the distinct developmental phases of the oral, the anal, and the phallic.
  • After Freud’s later development of the theory of the Oedipus complex this normative developmental trajectory becomes formulated in terms of the child’s renunciation of incestuous desires
THE UNCONSCIOUS DEATH DRIVE
  • Freud believed that the human psyche is subject to two conflicting drives: the life drive or libido and the death drive. Freud hypothesized that libido is a form of mental energy with which processes, structures and objectrepresentations are invested.
  • In Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920), Freud inferred the existence of a death drive. The life drive was also termed “Eros” and the death drive “Thanatos”, although Freud did not use the latter term; “Thanatos” was introduced in this context by Paul Federn.