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Politics & War

Politics & War

Rani Lakshmibai

Rani Lakshmibai
RANI LAKSHMI BAI(RANI OF JHANSI) PART 1
EARLY LIFE
  • Rani Lakshmibai was born on 19 November 1835 in the town of Varanasi into a Marathi Karhade Brahmin family.
  • She was named Manikarnika Tambe and was nicknamed Manu. Her father was Moropant Tambe and her mother Bhagirathi Sapre (Bhagirathi Bai). Her parents came from Maharashtra and was cousin of Nana Sahib.
  • Her mother died when she was four years old. Her father worked for a court Peshwa of Bithoor district.
  • The Peshwa called her “Chhabili”, which means “playful”. She was educated at home and was more independent in her childhood than others of her age; her studies included shooting, horsemanship, fencing and mallakhamba with her childhood friends Nana Sahib and Tantia Tope.
  • Her horses included Sarangi, Pavan and Baadal; according to historians she rode Baadal when escaping from the fort in 1858.
 DOCTRINE OF LAPSE
  • Manikarnika was married to the Maharaja of Jhansi, Raja Gangadhar Newalkar and was afterwards called Lakshmibai.
  • She gave birth to a boy, later named Damodar Rao, in 1851, who died after four months. The Maharaja adopted a child called Anand Rao.
  • After the death of the Maharaja in November 1853, because Damodar Rao (born Anand Rao) was an adopted son, the British East India Company, under Governor-General Lord Dalhousie, applied the Doctrine of Lapse, rejecting Damodar Rao’s claim to the throne and annexing the state to its territories.
REFUSAL AND ANNEXATION
  • An agent of the East India Company was posted in the small kingdom to look after administrative matters.
  • The 22-year-old queen refused to cede Jhansi to the British. Shortly after the beginning of the mutiny in 1857, which broke out in Meerut, Lakshmi Bai was proclaimed the regent of Jhansi, and she ruled on behalf of the minor heir.
FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
  • STARTED IN MAY 1857 FROM MEERUT
  • ECONOMIC CAUSE
  • POLITICAL CAUSE
  • SOCIAL CAUSE
  • IMMDEDIATE CAUSE
  • CENTRES FIRST WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
  • On 10 May 1857 the Indian Rebellion started in Meerut. When news of the fighting reached Jhansi, the Rani asked the British political officer, Captain Alexander Skene, for permission to raise a body of armed men for her own protection; Skene agreed to this.
  • Joining the uprising against the British, she rapidly organized her troops and assumed charge of the rebels in the Bundelkhand region. Mutineers in the neighbouring areas headed toward Jhansi to offer her support.
  • Under Gen. Hugh Rose, the East India Company’s forces had begun their counteroffensive in Bundelkhand by January 1858.
RANI LAKSHMI BAI(RANI OF JHANSI) PART 2
QUEEN
  • The position of widows in the Indian civilization has always been gloomy but she became and effective administrator. “she rose as early as three in the morning, and after ablutions, sat for religious meditation till eight. Then for three hours she supervised the work in the political and military offices ; when it was finished she distributed alms to the needy and distressed. She took her meal at midday and appeared again at the court at 3. The afternoon was devoted to the administration of the various departments of justice, revenue and accounts which lasted till sunset. She read the scriptures in the evening, and after a simple dinner, retired for the night” MANIKARNIKA “MAI APNI JHANSI NAHI DOONGI” MANIKARNIKA “MAI APNI JHANSI NAHI DOONGI”
SIEGE OF JHANSI
  • From August 1857 to January 1858 Jhansi under the Rani’s rule was at peace.
  • When the British forces finally arrived in March they found it welldefended and the fort had heavy guns which could fire over the town and nearby countryside.
  • Hugh Rose, commanding the British forces, demanded the surrender of the city; if this was refused it would be destroyed. She defended Jhansi against British troops when Sir Hugh Rose besieged Jhansi on 23 March 1858.
  • The bombardment began on 24 March but was met by heavy return fire and the damaged defences were repaired.
 GWALIOR
  • The Rani withdrew from the palace.The place from where Rani Lakshmibai jumped on her horse.On 22 May British forces attacked Kalpi; the forces were commanded by the Rani herself and were again defeated.
  • The leaders (the Rani of Jhansi, Tantia Tope, the Nawab of Banda, and Rao Sahib) fled once more. They came to Gwalior and joined the Indian forces who now held the city (Maharaja Scindia having fled to Agra from the battlefield at Morar).
  • They moved on to Gwalior intending to occupy the strategic Gwalior Fort and the rebel forces occupied the city without opposition.
  • The Rani was unsuccessful in trying to persuade the other rebel leaders to prepare to defend Gwalior against a British attack which she expected would come soon. General Rose’s forces took Morar on 16 June and then made a successful attack on the city
BATTLE OF JHANSI
  • On 17 June in Kotah-ki-Serai near the Phool Bagh of Gwalior, a under Captain Heneage, fought the large Indian force commanded by Rani Lakshmibai which was trying to leave the area.
  • They charged into the Indian force, slaughtering 5,000 Indian soldiers, including any Indian “over the age of 16”.
  • According to another tradition Rani Lakshmibai, the Queen of Jhansi, dressed as a cavalry leader, was badly wounded; not wishing the British to capture her body, she told a hermit to burn it. After her death a few local people cremated her body.
  • The British captured the city of Gwalior after three days. In the British report of this battle, Hugh Rose commented that Rani Lakshmibai is “personable, clever and beautiful” and she is “the most dangerous of all Indian leaders”.
AFTERMATH
  • India was no more controlled by British East India Company.India came under the direct control of the British crown.
  • Kingdoms that were loyal to the British Crown, were allowed rule under the Queen’s name.Queen Victoria was proclaimed as the Empress of India. All of India became her subjects.
  • The feeling and need to revolt was crushed for the next 50 years but it gave birth to nationalists movement and the boosted the winning spirit.
  • Made India an offshore resourcing space to fight British wars around the world.Contributed to tens and hundreds