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Guru Gobind Singh

Guru Gobind Singh
  • Guru Nanak Dev (1469-1539) – He was the founder of Sikh Religion.
  • Guru Angad (1539-1552) – He started Gurumukhi language that is the writing script Sikh Religion.
  • Guru Amardas (1552-1574) – He demolished many social evils like stoppage of child marriage, widow re-marriage etc.
  • Guru Ramdas (1574-1581) – He discovered the Amritsar city by contributing 500 villages. Akbar had gifted him these villages.
  • Guru Arjan Dev (1581-1606) – He built Golden Temple and also wrote Aadigranth. At last, he was executed by Emperor Jahangir.
  • Guru Hargobind (1606-1645) – He placed Akal Takht in the Golden Temple.
  • Guru Har Rai (1645-1661)
  • Guru Harikishan (1661-1664) – Many schools were built across the country by the names of Hari Kishan. • Guru Tegbahadur (1664-1675) – Emperor Aurangzeb sentenced his death.
  • Guru Gobind Singh (1675-1708) – He started Khalsa Panth.
  • Guru Gobind Singh (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
  • When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam,Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Guru.His four sons died during his lifetime – two in battle, two executed by the Mughal army.
  • Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times.
  • Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri. He was born in Patna, Bihar.
  • His birth name was Gobind Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.
  • In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, and in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled
  • His father was arrested then publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire.
  • After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676.
  • The education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery
  • Guru Gobind Singh had three wives:
  • at age 10, he married Mata Jito on 21 June 1677 at Basantgaṛh, 10 km north of Anandpur. The couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh (b. 1691), Zorawar Singh(b. 1696) and Fateh Singh (b. 1699).
  • At age 17, he married Mata Sundari on 4 April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh(b. 1687).
  • At age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan on 15 April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children, but she had an influential role in Sikhism. Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa.
  • In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi. According to the Sikh tradition he asked for volunteers and returned with volunteers.He called them the Panj Pyare and the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition.
  • Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K’s tradition of the Khalsa,
  • Kesh: uncut hair.
  • Kangha: a wooden comb.
  • Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist.
  • Kirpan: a sword or dagger.
  • Kacchera: short breeches.
  • The period following the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur – the father of Guru Gobind Singh, was a period where the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb was an increasingly hostile enemy of the Sikh people.
  • Aurangzeb issued an order to exterminate Guru Gobind Singh and his family.Guru Gobind Singh believed in a Dharam Yudh.
  • He led fourteen wars with these objectives, but never took captives nor damaged anyone’s place of worship.
  • Guru’s mother Mata Gujri and his two younger sons were captured by Wazir Khan, the Muslim governor of Sirhind.
  • His youngest sons, aged 5 and 8, were executed by burying them alive into a wall after they refused to convert to Islam, and Mata Gujri collapsed on hearing her grandsons’ death.
  • Both his eldest sons, aged 13 and 17, also killed in the battle of December 1704 against the Mughal army.
  • Aurangzeb died in 1707, and immediately a succession struggle began between his sons who attacked each other.
  • The official successor was Bahadur Shah, who invited Guru Gobind Singh with his army to meet him in person in the Deccan region of India, for a reconciliation but Bahadur Shah then delayed any discussions for months.
  • Wazir Khan, a Muslim army commander and the Nawab of Sarhandh, commissioned two Afghans, Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg, to follow the Guru’s army as it moved for the meeting with Bahadur Shah, and then assassinate the Guru.
  • The two secretly pursued the Guru whose troops were in the Deccan area of India, and entered the camp when the Sikhs had been stationed near river Godavari for months. They gained access to the Guru and Jamshed Khan stabbed him with a fatal wound at Nanded.
  • The Guru died of his wounds a few days later on 7 October 1708.His death fuelled a long and bitter war of the Sikhs with the Mughals.After that the struggle continued by Banda Singh Bahadur along with Baj Singh, Binod Singh and others.