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Aamir Khusrau

Aamir Khusrau

 

EARLY LIFE

 

  • Amīr Khusrau was born in 1253 in Patiyali,Kasganj district in modern-day Uttar Pradesh, India, in what was then the Delhi Sultanate, the son of Amīr Saif ud-Dīn Mahmūd, a man of Turkic extraction and a native Hindu mother.
  • Amir Saif ud-Din married Bibi Daulatnaz, the daughter of Rawat Arz, a Hindu noble and war minister of Ghiyas udDin Balban, the ninth Sultan of Delhi.
  • Amir Saif ud-Din and Bibi Daulatnaz became the parents of four children: three sons (one of whom was Khusrau) and a daughter. Amir Saif ud-Din Mahmud died in 1260, when Khusrau was only eight years old.
 TOOTI-E-HIND

 

  • Through his father’s influence, he imbibed Islam and Sufism coupled with proficiency in Turkish, Persian, and Arabic languages.
  • Over and over again in his poetry, and throughout his life, he affirmed that he was an Indian Turk (Turke-Hindustani). Khusrau’s love and admiration for his motherland is transparent through his work. Persian lyricist Hafiz of Shirazulla described him as Tooti-eHind – the singing bird of India.
  • His first divan, Tuhfat us-Sighr (The Gift of Childhood), containing poems composed between the ages of 16 and 18, was compiled in 1271.
CAREER

 

  • After Khusrau’s grandfather’s death, Khusrau joined the army of Malik Chajju, a nephew of the reigning Sultan, Ghiyas ud-Din Balban. This brought his poetry to the attention of the Assembly of the Royal Court where he was honored.
  • Nasir ud-Din Bughra Khan, the second son of Balban, was invited to listen to Khusrau. He was impressed and became Khusrau’s patron in 1276.
  • Multan at the time was the gateway to India and was a center of knowledge and learning. Caravans of scholars, tradesmen and emissaries transited through Multan from Baghdad, Arabia and Persia on their way to Delhi.
CAREER

 

  • After Qaiqabad suffered a stroke in 1290,A TurkoAfghan named Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji then marched on Delhi, killed Qaiqabad and became Sultan
  • Jalal ud-Din Firuz Khalji appreciated poetry and invited many poets to his court. Khusrau was honoured and respected in his court and was given the title “Amir”.
  • He was given the job of “Mushaf-dar”. Court life made Khusrau focus more on his literary works. Khusrau’s ghazals which he composed in quick succession were set to music and were sung by singing girls every night before the Sultan.
CAREER

 

  • In 1290 Khusrau completed his second masnavi, Miftah ul-Futuh (Key to the Victories), in praise of Jalal ud-Din Firuz’s victories. In 1294 Khusrau completed his third divan, Ghurrat ul-Kamaal (The Prime of Perfection), which consisted of poems composed between the ages of 34 and 41.
  • After Jalal ud-Din Firuz, Ala ud-Din Khalji ascended to the throne of Delhi in 1296. Khusrau wrote the Khaza’in ul-Futuh.
  • He then composed a khamsa (quintet) with five masnavis, known as Khamsa-e-Khusrau (Khamsa of Khusrau), completing it in 1298.
CAREER

 

  • All these works made Khusrau a leading luminary in the world of poetry. Ala ud-Din Khalji was highly pleased with his work and rewarded him handsomely.
  • In 1310 Khusrau became a disciple of Sufi saint of the Chishti Order, Nizamuddin Auliya. In 1315, Khusrau completed the romantic masnavi Duval Rani – Khizr Khan (Duval Rani and Khizr Khan).
  • After Ala ud-Din Khalji’s death in 1316, his son Qutb ud-Din Mubarak Shah Khalji became the Sultan of Delhi. Khusrau wrote a masnavi on Mubarak Shah Khalji called Nuh Sipihr (Nine Skies), which described the events of Mubarak Shah Khalji’s reign.
  • In 1317 Khusrau compiled Baqia-Naqia (Remnants of Purity). In 1319 he wrote Afzal ul-Fawaid (Greatest of Blessings), a work of prose that contained the teachings of Nizamuddin Auliya.
 CAREER

 

  • In 1321 Khusrau began to write a historic masnavi named Tughlaq Nama (Book of the Tughlaqs) about the reign of Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq and that of other Tughlaq rulers.
  • Khusrau died in October 1325, six months after the death of Nizamuddin Auliya. Khusrau’s tomb is next to that of his spiritual master in the Nizamuddin Dargah in Delhi.
 HINDUSTANI MUSIC

 

  • Qawwali
  • Tarana and Trivat
  • Sitar